The Ayrshire breed of cows takes the second place of honor in the ranking of the best dairy cows, although in some respects it still leads. The article will describe the qualitative characteristics of the species, especially the content and feeding.
What is the history and description of the species?
Appeared at the beginning of the XVIII century in Scotland, Ayrshire. To create the species were used Tisvaterskiy, Alderney and Dutch cows. Bred at the moment mainly in Scotland, Finland, USA, Australia, Canada, Ukraine, Russia.
Height at the withers is 125 cm, body length - 155 cm. Cow weight - 400-500 kg, bull - 700-1000 kg
Ayrshire cows are quite large. Height at the withers is 125 cm, body length - 155 cm. Cow weight - 400-500 kg, bull - 700-1000 kg. It has a light, but well built bones. The chest is powerful, wide (girth 160-175 cm), the back is even. The neck is thick, short. The head is small, but it looks harmonious, the transition from the location of the horns to the tip of the nose is straight. Legs short, muscular, hoofs well developed, straight. The udder is cup-shaped, large, the nipples are wide apart, the veins are well distinguishable. The cows have lyre-shaped horns of a light color.
The color is brownish white. As a rule, brown or white predominate on the individual, and the second color comes in the form of non-uniform spots throughout the body.
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It is the characteristics that made Ayrshire cows so popular around the world. This milky species is one of the best. Below are considered the quality of the breed and its main features.
Burenks are ready to mate since 14 months
- For a year, a cow gives 7,000 liters of milk with a fat content of 4–4.6%. As part of an average of 3.5% protein. Raising and lowering the norm is directly related to the quality of life of the animal and its food. There are practically no somatic cells in the milk composition.
- Milk flow rate - 1.8-2.0 liters per minute.
- Milk in burenok very tasty, healthy, it is from him often make baby food.
- With high productivity, the cow eats very little.
- High quality meat is also obtained from the breed. Slaughter meat output from bulls - 55%. At the same time gobies quickly gain weight. Already in 1 year they weigh in the range of 400 kg.
- Productivity persists for many years. Record quantities of milk yield can be observed even in cows of "retirement" age.
- Reducing the quality of feed for a long time does not affect the performance of animals.
- Burenks are ready to mate since 14 months. The hotel usually falls for 2 years.
- Difficulties in childbirth or care for calves does not arise. Calving takes place without the help of a breeder or veterinarian.
- The animal has excellent health. Of course, there are factors that can significantly spoil it, but with the right content problems never arise. Genetic defects are not marked.
As in the case of other species, the Ayrshire breed of cows has its drawbacks.
- With a sharp change of diet, or transfer from pasture to stall feeding, a rumen swelling may be observed. Therefore, you need to change the diet gradually.
- It endures heat and drought poorly; soreness, lethargy, and a decrease in milk yields can be observed.
- The nature of an active, but shy, aggression may occur.
How to keep Ayrshire breed?
The animal very quickly and easily acclimatizes in a cold or cold climate, but does not like the heat. In the southern regions, soreness may occur in the first weeks, and even months.
At arrangement of a stall it is necessary to take care of ventilation, lack of drafts and humidity
In terms of keeping a cow unpretentious. There are only three important points to watch out for: ventilation, drafts and humidity. These three parameters play a key role in the content. Poor ventilation, drafts or high humidity, especially in winter, can lead to the development of diseases. Therefore, when arranging the stall, you need to take care of these things, and only then think about the arrangement of the floor, feeders and the like.
Walking is highly recommended. Fresh air, walks for the breed are very useful. In the "conclusion" may decrease the yield. Usually, animals are released in the early morning after breakfast and are driven into the stall in the late afternoon.
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They feed cows 3 times with stall feeding and 2 times with mixed
Meals can be stall, grazing or mixed. For maximum productivity usually choose a mixed type of feeding. On the field, the Ayrshire breed of cows sheds excess fat, it can eat green grass, and in the stall it gets additional minerals and vitamins that it needs. It is important to note that in winter the cows do not graze, therefore in the late spring it is necessary to start slowly transferring them to stall feeding, and in early spring again to mixed or pasture.
In the stall, you can give hay, feed, roots. The first is given in abundance, the second is bought or interfered on its own, the third is a useful supplement, fed in the form of mash. The nutritional value of compound feed or mash is improved by adding salt and chalk. If desired, feed can be done independently. In this case, it is necessary to add vitamins and minerals to the main composition.
They feed cows three times with stall feeding and 2 with mixed. Early in the morning, before the walk, grain is given, and in the evening they are masters, although it is possible and vice versa - it does not matter. Sometimes, during a long walk, breeders feed the breed in the stall only once - in the evening. In principle, this will be enough for the cows, but you need to monitor the quality of the grass on the pasture and the nutritional value of the stall feed.