To obtain high-quality pork in a large volume, meat-raising pigs are fed. Meat breeds of pigs are distinguished by an elongated constitution, a large muscle mass, they have not much fat, as a rule, this is the middle or thin fat layer no more. Below are considered the most productive and popular species for breeding.
What are the features of meat breeds?
Meat breeds are also called bacon. Their torso is rather muscular, their legs are very strong. The sternum is not as pronounced as in the greasy variety. But the back of the body is massive with brightly defined ham.
Pig meat breeds are mainly grown on bacon
Meat species grow very quickly, by 6 months the young can reach 100 kg. At the same time, it is precisely muscle mass that develops intensively, and fat accumulates very slowly. By the time of slaughter the carcass consists of 58-67% meat and 21-32% fat on average. However, every breeder should know that such indicators can be achieved by proper feeding and grooming of boars. Otherwise, the fat will accumulate in the same way as the representatives of the sebaceous direction.
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The best meat breeds of pigs are those that have very high productive indicators. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that high productivity is not just achieved. Each of the breeds described below have drawbacks that every breeder will have to face.
Description of the best meat breeds of pigs:
- Duroc in length can reach 1.8 m. The skin color is of different shades of red. Bristle of medium length, the same color as the skin. Have strong high legs, active character. An adult male weighs up to 380 kg, females - 310 kg. The thickness of the blubber in this case will be no more than 3 cm. The output of meat after slaughter is 80%. The disadvantages of the breed is that at any time the female gives no more than 10 piglets, as well as the fact that individuals need expensive feeding.
The best pig meat breeds
- Landrace - breed of meat pigs, bred in the XIX century. In adulthood can reach 360 kg (males). At a time, the sow gives up to 10 healthy and active piglets. Weight gain is moderate, feed consumption: 4 kg of food per 1 kg of weight gain. Skin color is light pink is possible. Among the shortcomings worth highlighting the demands on nutrition and care.
- Pietrain has a short but wide body. Color white or motley (in gray spot). Monochrome pigs are usually allowed for slaughter, and spotted pigs are used for further breeding. The main advantage of the species is that they are not capable of genetically accumulating fat in large quantities. The weight of males reaches 270 kg, females 240 kg. The disadvantage is a small farrow (8 piglets no more). One female feeds only 6 pigs, two more will survive only with additional feed. Badly acclimatized. The set of muscle mass is slow, only by the 240th day they reach 100 kg. On average, 62% of meat and 28% of fat are produced per individual.
- Hampshire The pig breed has a black or dark gray color, but in the neck area there is a wide light band. The maximum weight of the boar is 310 kg, of the female - 250 kg. Up to 8 months grow slowly, then the set of masses is fast. Quickly gets used to the new climate, living conditions. No more than 12 piglets in offspring, but more often 8. Take good care of the offspring. The lack of extreme fearfulness, you need to be alert all the time.
Without cleanliness in the pigsty and the neglect of regular inspection of the livestock by a veterinarian, there may be deterioration in the health of pigs and even deaths are possible. We picked up the most frequent diseases of pigs and methods of treatment in a separate article, which can be read - here.
Popular meat breeds and their characteristics
In addition to the species described above, there are also meat breeds of pigs, which have lower productive rates, but are easier to maintain, which is why they are popular in different countries around the world.
Popular meat breeds of pigs
- Tamworth - One of the first meat breeds, bred in England. Individuals have a not very long body - 1-1.4 m. The color is quite diverse: brown, light with spots and without, but most often red. 100 kg of individuals reach 7 months of age. In litter no more than 10 cubs.
- Russian large white makes up 80% of the total livestock of pigs meat in Russia. The weight of the boar reaches 350 kg, pigs - 260 kg. In litter up to 11 pigs. Positive qualities include the excellent immune system of the animal.
- Estonian bacon - Another meat breed of pigs, has a very tasty, tender meat. The weight of females is 240 kg, boars - 330 kg. The output of meat is 60%. Performance 11-12 piglets in the offspring. The disadvantages of the form are associated with health - there is the friability of attendants, pendulous ass.
- Ukrainian white steppe - one of the first meat breeds of pigs bred in Ukraine. Differs massive, large hanging ears. Weight 350 kg boars, females - 250 kg. A sow can produce 10-12 piglets at a time, they ripen quickly - 700 g of weight gain per day. 100 kg gaining by 6 month. Easy to feed and maintain, unpretentious, have a delicious meat.
- Urzhum pigs have exclusively white skin color. The weight of males rarely exceeds 300 kg, females - 240 kg. In the farrowing 11-12 pups, weight gain is fast, the meat has a pleasant taste.
- Poltava meat - breed of Ukrainian selection. The male reaches 300 kg, the female - 240 kg. Color is white, strong legs, nice appearance. In farrowing, on average, 11 calves, but sometimes more. Unpretentious, easy to care for her, and in the diet is not picky.
- Mangal - meat breed of pigs, reaches a weight of 250 kg (female). The animal has very little fat, as a rule, it is the thinnest layer. The case with the boar is possible from 6 months, the offspring are harvested for 114 days. There can be up to 15 piglets in farrowing! Mature quickly, the taste of meat is excellent.
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When choosing a meat breed of pigs, one should pay attention to all indicators and characteristics, and not just the final meat yield and weight of the animal at slaughter. Yes, a large amount of meat allows you to set up a profitable business, but with the “most meaty breeds of pigs” there are usually a lot of troubles and difficulties. Problems may relate to health, content, feeding. For example, Pietren can feed no more than 6 calves on their own, and in the litter they have about 8 pigs. So the remaining 2 fall on the breeder's shoulders.
It is necessary to take into account the size of the farm, the availability of additional personnel (to take care of the young, adult but sick animals, etc.). The financial side of the issue is also important. The more money a breeder has, the more expensive he can buy animals and spend on equipment for a pigsty, walking, to buy food. For example, Landras requires a warm room throughout the year, so you can’t do without heating, but Mangalam doesn’t need heating, they have a warm winter coat.
But most importantly, what you should pay attention - the type of meat. It must be of high quality - competitive in the market. But the quality of meat depends not only on the breed of the animal, but also on the care. Poor content adversely affects animals and their meat.
Features of the content of meat breeds
Meat breeds of pigs give the expected results (high quality meat) only with good content.
- Contain pig breeds of meat only in clean, spacious pigsty. Cramping and dirt are the main causes of injuries and illnesses.
- Walking is highly recommended. On walks, pigs shed off excess fat and receive additional vitamins from plant foods that grow in the pen.
- Scheduled examinations of the veterinarian, vaccinations, in this case are required, especially if the meat is for sale.
- Carbohydrate food contributes to weight gain, but in vegetable it decreases the weight gain of piglets. But you can't do without it, you just need to properly regulate the diet.
It is worth noting that even the expensive food these animals pay off in full, the main thing is not to save on their feeding. Their diet should have a lot of proteins and vitamins. Cheap food can cause the animal to either get sick, or the quality of the bacon will be low.