Lavrovishnya - a useful cultivated plant. The name comes from the combination of the words "laurel" and "cherry." It was invented by Pierre Belon, a famous botanist, who discovered this plant. The leaves of the laurel cherry tree really resemble laurel, and the berries are like small cherries. It is considered useful, has decorative qualities, but is grown mainly in warm regions.
What is a laurel cherry
A laurel cherry is a low, evergreen culture, a species of the subgenus Cherry, a genus of Plum (Prunus) of the Rosaceae family. In 1546, the plant was brought from Constantinople to Europe, and since 1629 they began to actively grow the culture in the southern regions, where it took root without any problems.Interesting! Lavrovishnya is often mentioned in literary works. In Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, the hydrocyanic acid obtained from this plant was used to make the poison that Romeo poisoned.
Laurel Cherry is a low, evergreen culture.
The peak of the popularity of the laurel cherry falls on the XVII-XIX centuries. At that time, it was distributed almost throughout the world, and where it could not be grown, it was massively imported by traders due to high demand. At that time, it was used instead of Corvalol and for the treatment of many diseases, but due to a possible overdose, the remedy was soon abandoned. Today it is used sometimes in traditional medicine, pharmacology.
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Different types of laurel cherry may appear slightly different. The plant belongs to the genus Plum, subgenera - Cherry and the Rosaceae family. It is grown mainly in warm regions, for example, in East Asia, the Mediterranean, South and Middle America.Interesting! Homemade jam and tonic drinks are often made from laurel berries. The flesh of the berries is tasty and not poisonous, so these dishes are quite safe.
The tree grows in height to 10 meters. The crown is compact, but thick. All parts of the culture, except the pulp of the berries, are poisonous. The roots are well developed and the main ones are deeply deepened. The old branches are rough, gray in color, and the young - green, with a light down. Leaves 8-25 cm long, oval with a sharp end, grow on short petioles. The foliage color is saturated green, the front side is leathery, glitters.
The tree grows in height to 10 meters. The crown is compact but dense
Inflorescences are axillary brush up to 5-13 cm. The flowers are small, white, hold on short pedicels, have a pleasant, strong aroma. Flowering occurs in April-May. Berries egg-shaped, up to 0.8 cm in length, black. The bone is also ovoid. The taste of the berries is sugary, the aroma is not very pronounced. Berries ripen in August.
The best varieties of laurel cherry
There are three main types of laurel cherry. Each species has its own unique qualities.
- Laurel Cherry - the most common type of laurel cherry. He is unpretentious and has decorative qualities. The plant is a compact shrub up to 2 meters in height. It grows on almost any type of soil. There is resistance to severe drought, heat and short frosts.
- Louisian laurel cherry grows high bush conical shape. He likes a warm climate, in the cultivation can cause a lot of trouble. This decorative look requires proper lighting, plenty of sunshine, moderate humidity, normal or alkaline soil. If you do not follow the rules of care or planting, the plant dies quickly.
- Lavrovishnya Portuguese - Late variety, flowering only in mid-June. Grows a tree, up to 5 m. The krone is wide, dense. The leaves are shiny, green. The inflorescences are small, the berries are maroon.
Among the varieties of this plant are some of the most popular.
Stock Foto Cherry laurel
- Rotundifolia - compact type of medicinal laurel cherry. Branches grow strictly vertically. The leaves are dark green, shiny, 10-15 cm in length. Berries are black. The plant tolerates drought well, grows on any soil, even on stony, but needs an abundance of sunlight.
- Herbergeri - Another variety of medicinal laurel cherry, common in the Caucasus, the Black Sea coast, the Balkans. It grows a bush, up to 4 meters and a width of about 3 meters. The berries are typical, egg-shaped, maroon color. The variety makes a good heat, drought, but does not tolerate strong winds and dies during frosts.
- Mount vernon - decorative bush dwarf type. Shoots are long, creeping. The bush in height grows up to 50 cm, but in width it can reach up to 1.5 meters. The leaves are simple, leathery, up to 8 cm in length with jagged edges. This species is suitable for growing in the shade and in sunny areas, but does not give berries. For the winter requires shelter.
- Otto Luyken - dwarf variety with spherical crown up to 80 cm in height. This is a decorative look with green leaves and lush, beautiful buds. It has an average winter hardiness, can grow in the sun or in the shade.
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Propagate laurel cherry can be a variety of methods.
- Seed propagation. To do this, the seeds are first hardened at + 4 ... +6 degrees for 60 days, then soaked in hot water one day. Planting is carried out in a mixture of peat and garden land. Bone germinate pretty quickly. Young sprouts are kept in room conditions for up to a year. After that you can transplant them to the site.
- Grafting is the easiest breeding option. To do this, cut the stiff shoots, clean them from the leaves and put in boxes with a mixture of peat, earth and humus. In greenhouse conditions, they are grown to a year, then transplanted.
Photo of portuguese lavrovishni
- By air layering several new plants can be obtained. To do this, in spring a certain branch is selected, incised (so that the root goes), bends down and covered with earth. Around the end of August, it will be possible to cut off the young culture from the parent, and the next year to transplant.
- Basal shoots can also breed laurel cherry. Old trees usually do not uproot, but are cut, leaving a stump up to 5 cm in height. The next year, he will give young shoots. When they reach 30 cm, they begin to water and spud. Over time, the shoots will acquire their roots, and they can be taken out of the ground, transplanted to a permanent place.
Planting and growing
For cultivation in the southern regions of any type of laurel cherry suit, but in the middle lane can be cultivated only those varieties that endure the cold, such as medicinal laurel cherry. Landing should be protected from strong winds. At the same time, the site is chosen sunny, well lit with nutrient, slightly alkaline or neutral soil.
Landing is always in April. The pit is made up to a depth of 80 cm and a meter wide. In the soil for planting add a complex of minerals for floral plants and peat. Drainage is made at the bottom of the pit, and a garter peg is installed. During planting, a hill is poured out of the ground in a hole, a seedling is placed on it - the root collar should be level with the top layer of soil. After falling asleep the roots, the plant is tied to a peg and watered abundantly.Interesting! Lavrovishnya - honey plant. But the honey obtained from it is poisonous and not used for food.
Caring for a laurel cherry can be simple or time consuming - depends on the variety.
Caring for a laurel cherry can be simple or time consuming - depends on the variety.
- Watering is carried out as needed. The land should not dry out, but puddles are excluded! From April to October, regular watering is needed - about a bucket of water a week. If the weather is dry, then water the plant every 2-3 days.
- If it has not been raining for a long time, then it is advisable to sprinkle over the leaves. This procedure is done exclusively in the evening.
- Fertilizing is carried out with a solution of humus, compost or complex minerals. Bring them once a month, from the first warm spring days to September.
- Pruning needed sanitary. Do it 2 times per season - in May and October. Cut off damaged, dry, diseased branches and those that grow incorrectly. Forming pruning is optional. The crown of this tree grows neat by itself. But if necessary, you can give the tree a certain shape.
- Land in the root zone is kept clean. Weeds, trash are excluded! In addition, you need to loosen the ground regularly, so that oxygen gets to the roots.
- The plant can be affected by powdery mildew, shield, powdery worm. To avoid this, prophylactic spraying with sulfur-containing fungicides and insecticides like Aktara, Fufanon is carried out.
- At the onset of the first cold watering stop. Bottom zone should be mulched with a thick layer of peat. In severe frosts, the crown is wrapped with insulating material.
The benefits and harm of laurel cherry
Laurel cherry has been used in folk medicine for centuries. She has a lot of positive qualities.
Photo of flowering laurel cherry
- Helps with inflammatory processes in the respiratory system, cough.
- Phytoncides in the composition of the plant have an antimicrobial effect, so the culture is used for internal bleeding.
- Treats diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract it can reduce the sensitivity of pain receptors of the mucous membrane, weaken peristalsis.
- The beneficial properties of laurel cherry are also used to treat diseases of the skin, mucous membranes.
- It is effective in nervous system disorders, spasms.
- This is a strong antihelmintic.
In folk medicine, for the treatment of ailments, prevention, freshly picked leaves and berries of the plant are used. Of them is done most often, medical, laurel water. From it create lotions, rubbed the skin, taken orally or inhalation. Essential oils are rarely used, with exact concentration. If the essential oil is used improperly, an overdose is possible!
Despite the beneficial properties of the plant, one should not forget that it belongs to poisonous cultures. The plant contains a lot of hydrocyanic acid, which is useful only in low concentrations. If you use it above the norm comes severe poisoning, and in some cases death. The main signs of poisoning are shortness of breath, hoarse voice, shortness of breath. This plant is contraindicated to use in any form pregnant, lactating women and children.