Broom refers to the legume family. Predominantly grows in the Mediterranean and in the middle part of Europe. This plant has a nice, decorative look. It is often used in landscape design, and during flowering it pleases not only with beautiful flowers, but also with fragrance.
What is a broom
Broom - is evergreen or deciduous, honey-bearing shrubs, grown in open ground, serve as a decoration in landscape design. The leaves of the culture are threefold, sometimes single. Flowers are in the axillary or apical racemes. The color of the buds is white, scarlet, but most often yellow. This culture does not grow rapidly and only at 3 years of age begins to bloom for the first time.
Photo of Broom creeping (Cytisus decumbens)Interesting! The broomstick month in the Celtic calendar is at the end of the year. This is a time of summing up, cleaning up all that is unnecessary in the house, character, and habits.
Many varieties of this plant are poisonous, because they contain a lot of pectins, cytisine, enzymes. In small quantities, some of them are used for medicinal purposes, but it is very important to be able to comply with the dosage! Certain species of broom can bear severe frosts, but there are also thermophilic varieties for which cold is unacceptable. Culture, depending on the variety, is able to grow in flower beds, by the window, natural fencing or in pots, pots, and in indoor conditions.
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The genus of broom contains more than 40 species of this culture.
Photo of Coronet broom (Cytisus scoparius)
- Creeping broom (Cytisus decumbens) grows up to 20 cm in height and up to 80 cm in girth. Sprigs of green color covered with short villi. The leaves are dark green, elongated to 20 mm, covered with villus on the back side. Flowers are yellow, different shades. This is the most beautiful view of all dwarfs, because it gives abundant flowering. Beans grow up to 2.5 cm in length, pubescent. There is resistance to frost, but at the same time, the plant is able to freeze, if the winter was frosty, without snow.
- Crown (Cytisus scoparius) grows up to 3 meters in height, therefore it is grown in open ground. The shoots are thin, green, while the young - pubescent. The leaves are alternately triple, oval. Buds up to 20 mm in size, of irregular shape, can be placed singly or in pairs in the axils of the leaflets. The color of flowers is yellow. The fruit is represented by an oblong, oblate bean with several seeds. It carries cold up to -20 ° C. Cultivated in warm European countries. Grades: Lena, Burkvudi, Andreanus Splendens, Killiney Red.
- Early broom (Cytisus praecox) grows to 1.5 meters. Pagons as arcs, thin, grow thickly. Leaflets lanceolate, narrow, up to 20 mm, light green in color. The roots are superficial. Abundant flowering, buds yellow color with a strong smell. This is an unpretentious, cold-resistant plant. It is used for landscape decoration, borders, can be grown at home. On the basis of this species, the famous Alldold variety was created. It is distinguished by bright yellow buds that appear before the leaves. And the grade "Bosko Ruby" grows up to 2 meters. Outside flowers are always ruby, inside - purple.
Photo of Early Broom (Cytisus praecox)
- Oblong broom (Cytisus elongatus) grows up to 1.5 meters in height. This is a very common type. It blooms from late May to late June. The buds are yellow with a golden sheen. Leaves with a short fuzz, trifoliate gray-green color. The variety loves light, is not afraid of drought, but for the winter shelter is made for it.
- Twisted Broom (Cytisus aggregatus) - dwarf variety for cultivation in flower beds and in room conditions. It grows only up to 50 cm in height. Bush in girth up to 80 cm. Flowering occurs at the beginning of July and lasts until October, the buds are yellow. After flowering fruits ripen. The plant is frost-resistant, easy to breed.
- Russian broom - A culture capable of enduring frosty winters. It grows a small bush up to 1.5 meters in height. The leaves are gray-green color. The buds are bright yellow, while flowering is beautifully decorated with a bush.
Photo of Broom Oblong (Cytisus elongatus)
- Purple Broom (Cytisus purpureus) grows up to 60 cm in height. The branches rise slightly above the ground, creating a spreading crown. It is a fast growing plant with excellent decorative qualities. Broom Albus - deciduous variety of purple species. The branches are arcuate, up to a meter in height. In May and June, this plant is covered with delicate white pea-shaped flowers, which are ahead of the appearance of foliage. Frost broom Albus -40 degrees! Also known are varieties of purple species such as: "Roseus", "Depress", "Captivity", "Amzatikus".
These are only the most common types of culture. There are also such types of plants as Rakitnik Kyussky, floating, blackening, Zinger.
Plant reproduction and planting
Photo of Twisted Broom (Cytisus aggregatus)
The breeding of the broom is usually done by one of the three methods described below.
- When breeding seeds need to select only high-quality seed. Seeds are sown in plates or similar containers in the spring, to a depth of 6 mm. The land for this is made of equal parts of peat and sand. The container with the seeds sown is placed in a darkened but warm place (+ 18 ... + 21 ° С). It is necessary to air and water them regularly. After the appearance of sprouts, they dive into separate containers or, to a permanent place, into the ground. The soil for this is taken from 2 parts of sod, parts of humus and 0.5 parts of sand.
- For reproduction cuttings are cut by branches with 3-4 leaves. All large leaves are removed. Rooted cuttings in the summer, in the soil of sand and peat (in equal shares). They can be planted thickly, because later transplantation is required. Then they are covered with a transparent, cut off bottle and maintained at a temperature of about + 18 ... + 20 ° С. It is necessary to often ventilate and water the ground at the cuttings. After they grow up, you can plant seedlings in separate containers or in open ground.
- During reproduction by layering, a long branch is taken and it is bent to the ground, covered with soil on top. And so that it does not rise from the wind, it is necessary to press it with a snag or a small stone. Soon there will be layouts. When they grow up, they are separated from the parent bush and seated.
Stock Foto Russian broom
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Broom has many varieties. In some cases, caring for it may be slightly different, but the implementation of some standards of care requires most types of broomstick.
- The optimum air temperature from March to the end of October is + 18 ... +25 ° С. From November to February it can be lowered to + 8 ... + 10 degrees. If the temperature is higher in winter, the culture will start to hurt.
- Humidity plant prefers high. You can conduct regular spraying or set the pot on a wet peat pan. But this plant needs high humidity only in summer. In the winter spraying is carried out very rarely and with great care, especially if the plant is contained at low temperatures.
- Lighting should be dark but bright. Mostly the plant should be illuminated only in the morning, and when the sun is drooping, in the afternoon the sun should not fall on it. The best location in apartment conditions is on the west or east window. But in the autumn-winter period the light is not important, it should not be much.
Photo of Broom Purple (Cytisus purpureus)
- Broom cannot grow without fresh air. If it grows at home, in a pot, for the summer it is best to take it out to the street, balcony, garden or veranda. If there is no possibility to bring the culture to fresh air, then at least you just need to ensure that it regularly ventilates the room.
- Watering in the warm season spend abundant when the top layer of the earth begins to dry out. In winter, watering is needed rare, so that the earth does not acid. It is advisable to water this plant with lime water in the composition.
- Top dressing from spring to autumn is carried out every 14 days with complex minerals. In autumn and winter they stop.
- The first circumcision occurs at the age of three years, when the culture reaches a height in the range of 50 cm. This is done so that the culture does not shed its leaves and begins to branch more.
- Transplantation is carried out after flowering, if the pot is already small for him. A mixture of 2 parts of sod, 1 part of humus and 0.5 parts of sand is used as soil. For large plants it is also necessary to add a little lime to the ground. It is also important to ensure quality drainage in a pot or flowerbed. Because the culture does not tolerate stagnation of water.
Broom sickness is not often, but it can affect pests and some diseases. In the case of moths, moths are treated with 0.2% chlorophos. Spraying with bacterial insecticides will help from moths, and from powdery mildew - 5% blue vitriol. Sometimes culture is also affected by black spot. In this case, use 1% copper oxychloride, Fundazol or 1% Bordeaux mixture.