Sprouting potatoes before planting, according to experienced gardeners, is an effective method for determining the quality of root crops. This method of preparing for planting increases the percentage of gatherings and provides an opportunity to get a large and high-quality crop. In addition, well-prepared seed reduces the possibility of infection of tubers with various diseases.
Sprouting potatoes is done in order to:
- have good germination;
- get a big harvest;
- reduce the loss of bushes;
- minimize the possibility of infection by disease.
Preparation of potatoes for germination
The effect of germination on harvest
Before proceeding to germination, you need to sort the potatoes. This will require the selection of the most whole and healthy tubers. Regarding the size, it should not be too large. It is enough that one potato was approximately equal to 5 cm in diameter.
Sprouting potatoes before planting begins 30 days before planting in open ground. Tubers, removed from storage, initially moved. After that, they need to be thoroughly cleaned of the remnants of the earth and rinsed under running water. This is done in order to reduce the possibility of infection of planting material with bacteria that may be in the ground since last year.
After washing, you need to disinfect potatoes. The easiest and most effective way is to soak it in a solution of boric acid, which is diluted in water at a ratio of 1: 100, for 20 minutes. After that, the tubers are well dried.
There are three main ways of sprouting potatoes before planting:
- using light;
- in a humid environment;
- by wilting.
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Sprouting potatoes using light
The method of germination using light is that the selected potatoes for 20 days were under the influence of bright light at a temperature not lower than + 12 °. He will begin to acquire a greenish tint. After 20 days, a secondary collection. All doubtful tubers are rejected.
If a room protected from natural daylight is used for germination, it is necessary to provide light by artificial means. To do this, you will need to install 75 W lamps per square meter of unfolded potatoes.
As soon as sprouts appeared on the tubers, the required time to illuminate the seedlings is from 8 to 10 hours per day.
The time of germination certainly depends on the temperature in the room. At low temperatures, the germination process will be delayed, and at high temperatures, the tubers will become dry and the sprouts will be defective. The approximate time of potato germination using light, under the right conditions, is 30-40 days.
Lighting should not be directional. It is better to use diffused light. It can be obtained by covering the potatoes with a thin white cloth.
The presence of light is required in order for the shoots to be strong and not to break off during planting and transportation.
Sprouting potatoes in moisture
Sprouting potatoes in moisture
When germinating in a humid environment, the main thing:
- breathing primer;
- required humidity.
All these requirements are equally important for the normal development of sprouts.
As for heat, the air temperature in the room intended for sprouting potatoes before planting should be from 12 to 25 °.
Regarding the soil, it is better to take sawdust and mix with the ground. Sawdust light, voluminous, keep moisture well. The use of sawdust during germination increases the yield in the future.
Humidity should be constant. It is important not to pour the potatoes before getting the swamp. If you overdo it with fluids, the tubers will rot and begin to rot.
When germinated in moisture, potatoes can be laid out both in the tank and on the floor or overhead shelves. Spread it on the pre-poured and moistened soil at a distance of 1 cm from each other. Top to fall asleep again with soil, the layer of which should not be more than 2-3 cm, then again lay the potatoes in the same manner.
If germination will occur on the floor or shelves, it is recommended to make such layers 3-4, and if in the tank, until it is filled.
At the end of the calculation of tubers, the last layer must also be sprinkled with earth. Under no circumstances is soil being compacted. The substrate used should not be cold.
Moisturize the ground by spraying. You can use ordinary water at room temperature, but experienced gardeners have long been convinced that it is better to moisturize with fertilizer mixtures. To prepare the mixture will need:
- 10 liters of water;
- 30 g of potassium salt;
- 60 g of superphosphate.
Thoroughly mix everything in slightly warm water and you can proceed to moisten the soil.
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Sprouting potatoes by wilting
The method of wilting is that the tubers are in a bright room, the temperature in which should be about 25 °. To use this method of germination, it is enough to lay the potatoes up to 15 cm thick in a container and leave in the required room with good ventilation. Before the germination process, the tubers are thoroughly washed out.
It takes about 5 days to germinate potatoes using the wilting method. If there is more time, you can stretch this procedure for 15 days, but at the same time the temperature in the room should be reduced to 16 ° C.